New London, Connecticut
City of New London
New London skyline from Fort Griswold
The Whaling City
Location in New London County, Connecticut
|Metropolitan area||New London|
|Settle||1646 (Pequot Plantation)|
|Named||1658 (New London)|
|• Mayor||Michael E. Passero|
|• City||10.61 sq mi (27.47 km2)|
|• Land||5.62 sq mi (14.56 km2)|
|• Water||4.99 sq mi (12.91 km2)|
|• Urban||123.03 sq mi (318.66 km2)|
|Elevation||56 ft (17 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||4,778.15/sq mi (1,844.88/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0209237|
|Airport||Groton–New London Airport|
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States, located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, Connecticut. It was one of the world's three busiest whaling ports for several decades beginning in the early 19th century, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture. The city subsequently became home to other shipping and manufacturing industries, but it has gradually lost most of its industrial heart.
New London is home to the United States Coast Guard Academy, Connecticut College, Mitchell College, and The Williams School. The Coast Guard Station New London and New London Harbor is home port to the Coast Guard Cutter Chinook and the Coast Guard's tall ship Eagle. The city had a population of 27,620 at the 2010 census. The Norwich–New London metropolitan area includes 21 towns and 274,055 people.
The area was called Nameaug by the Pequot Indians. John Winthrop, Jr. founded the first English settlement here in 1646, making it about the 13th town settled in Connecticut. Inhabitants informally referred to it as Nameaug or as Pequot after the tribe. In the 1650s, the colonists wanted to give the town the official name of London after London, England, but the Connecticut General Assembly wanted to name it Faire Harbour. The citizens protested, declaring that they would prefer it to be called Nameaug if it couldn't be officially named London. The legislature relented, and the town was officially named New London on March 10, 1658.
The harbor was considered to be the best deep water harbor on Long Island Sound, and consequently New London became a base of American naval operations during the American Revolutionary War and privateers where it has been said no port took more prizes than New London with between 400-800 being credited to New London privateers including the 1781 taking of supply ship Hannah, the largest prize taken during the war. Famous New Londoners during the American Revolution include Nathan Hale, William Coit, Richard Douglass, Thomas and Nathaniel Shaw, Gen. Samuel Parsons, printer Timothy Green, and Bishop Samuel Seabury.
New London was raided and much of it burned to the ground on September 6, 1781 in the Battle of Groton Heights by Norwich native Benedict Arnold in an attempt to destroy the Revolutionary privateer fleet and supplies of goods and naval stores within the city. It is often noted that this raid on New London and Groton was intended to divert General George Washington and the French Army under Rochambeau from their march on Yorktown, Virginia. The main defensive fort for New London was Fort Griswold, located across the Thames River in Groton. It was well known to Arnold, who sold its secrets to the British fleet so that they could avoid its artillery fire. The British overran New London's Fort Trumbull, while other soldiers moved in to attack Ft. Griswold across the river, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William Ledyard. The British suffered great casualties at Ft. Griswold before the Americans were finally forced to surrender—whereupon the British stormed into and slaughtered most of the militia who defended it, including Colonel Ledyard. All told, more than 52 British soldiers and 83 defenders were killed, and more than 142 British and 39 defenders were wounded, many mortally. New London suffered over 6 defenders killed and 24 wounded, while Arnold and the British and Hessian raiding party suffered an equal amount.
Connecticut's independent legislature made New London one of the first two cities brought from de facto to formalized incorporations in its January session of 1784, along with New Haven.
During the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors. In fact, a submarine-deployed torpedo was used in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New London's harbor. This prompted British Capt. Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any "torpedo boat" in this "cruel and unheard-of warfare", or he would "order every house near the shore to be destroyed".:693
For several decades beginning in the early 19th century, New London was one of the three busiest whaling ports in the world, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture.
The New Haven and New London Railroad connected New London by rail to New Haven and points beyond by the 1850s. The Springfield and New London Railroad connected New London to Springfield, Massachusetts, by the 1870s.
Several military installations have been part of New London's history, including the United States Coast Guard Academy and Coast Guard Station New London. Most of these military installations have been located at Fort Trumbull. The first Fort Trumbull was an earthwork built 1775-1777 that took part in the Revolutionary War. The second Fort Trumbull was built 1839-1852 and still stands. By 1910, the fort's defensive function had been superseded by the new forts of the Endicott Program, primarily located on Fishers Island. The fort was turned over to the Revenue Cutter Service and became the Revenue Cutter Academy. The Revenue Cutter Service was merged into the United States Coast Guard in 1915, and the Academy relocated to its current site in 1932. During World War II, the Merchant Marine Officers Training School was located at Fort Trumbull. From 1950 to 1990, Fort Trumbull was the location for the Naval Underwater Sound Laboratory, which developed sonar and related systems for US Navy submarines. In 1990, the Sound Laboratory was merged with the Naval Underwater Systems Center in Newport, Rhode Island, and the New London facility was closed in 1996.
The Naval Submarine Base New London is physically located in Groton, but submarines were stationed in New London during World War II and from 1951 to 1991. The submarine tender Fulton and Submarine Squadron 10 were based at State Pier in New London during this time. Squadron Ten was usually composed of eight to ten submarines and was the first all-nuclear submarine squadron. USS Fulton was decommissioned, after 50 years of service, in 1991 and Submarine Squadron 10 was disbanded at the same time. In the 1990s, State Pier was rebuilt as a container terminal.
In terms of land area, New London is one of the smallest cities in Connecticut. Of the whole 10.76 square miles (27.9 km2), nearly half is water; 5.54 square miles (14.3 km2) is land.
The town and city of New London are coextensive. Sections of the original town were ceded to form newer towns between 1705 and 1801. The towns of Groton, Ledyard, Montville, and Waterford, and portions of Salem and East Lyme, now occupy what had earlier been the outlying area of New London.
- Downtown New London
- Ocean Beach
Other minor communities and geographic features include Bates Woods Park, Fort Trumbull, Glenwood Park, Green's Harbor Beach, Mitchell's Woods, Pequot Colony, Riverside Park, Old Town Mill.
Towns created from New London
New London originally had a larger land area when it was established. Towns set off since include:
- Stonington in 1649
- Groton in 1705
- Ledyard (originally North Groton) created from a part of Groton in 1836.
- Montville in 1786.
- Salem created from parts of Montville, Colchester, and Lyme in 1819
- Waterford in 1801.
- East Lyme created from parts of Waterford and Lyme in 1839.
- Fishers Island officially left Connecticut and became part of New York in 1879.
New London has a humid warm temperate (or humid subtropical) Cfa climate possibly bordering on Oceanic Cfb within the Köppen climate classification (using the more liberal -3° C temperate/continental threshold for mean temperature of the coldest month). The city has long, warm-to-hot and humid summers, and cool to arguably cold (though not frigid) winters with modest snowfall. The city averages 2,300 hours of sunshine annually (higher than the USA average). New London lies in the broad transition zone between continental climates (Köppen climate classification: Dfb/a) to the north, and subtropical climates (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) to the south, much like the rest of the coastal northeastern United States south of Boston through New Jersey.
Though under a more conservative interpretation of the Köppen climate classification system (0° C temperate/continental threshold) the city may technically experience a "continental" climate more often than not, unlike the interior of the United States at a similar latitude—such as northern Illinois—the winter polar air-masses in New London are frequently punctuated by brief mild spells such that there isn't nearly as long nor as severe (as "continental") of a duration of subfreezing weather when it does occur. Humid, mild southerly air-flows can bring temperatures as high as the 60's F at times in the wake of warm fronts during winter. Most light to moderate snowfalls that occur in winter typically melt within days. Even under the more conservative climate classification within the Köppen framework, five of the past twenty years—three in the latter decade of those years—have statistically fallen within the criteria of Köppen's Warm Temperate (C) climate group definition (though not necessarily consistently Cfa, owing to fluctuating precipitation and summer temperature patterns). By the end of the 21st century, most of the state will likely fall comfortably within even the more conservative definition of Köppen's humid subtropical according to modeled outcomes.
From May to late September, the southerly flow from the Bermuda High creates hot and humid tropical weather conditions. Daytime heating produces occasional thunderstorms with heavy but brief downpours. Daytime highs in summer are normally near 80° F, with occasional heat waves bringing high temperatures into the 90's F. Spring and Fall are mild in New London, with daytime highs in the 55° to 70° F range and lows in the 40° to 50° F range. The seaside location of the city creates a long growing season compared to areas inland. The first frost in the New London area is normally not until late October or early November, almost three weeks later than parts of northern Connecticut. Winters are cool with a mix of rainfall and snowfall, or mixed precipitation. New London normally sees fewer than 25 days annually with snow cover. In mid-winter, there can be large differences in low temperatures between areas along the coastline and areas well inland, sometimes as much as 15° F.
Tropical cyclones (hurricanes/tropical storms) have struck Connecticut and the New London metropolitan area, although infrequently. Hurricane landfalls have occurred along the Connecticut coast in 1903, 1938, 1944, 1954 (Carol), 1960 (Donna), 1985 (Gloria). Tropical Storm Irene (2011) also caused moderate damage along the Connecticut coast, as did Hurricane Sandy (which made landfall in New Jersey) in 2012.
The Connecticut shoreline (including New London) lies within the broad transition zone where so-called "subtropical indicator" plants and other broadleaf evergreens can successfully be cultivated. New London averages about 90 days annually with freeze, about the same as Baltimore, Maryland. As such, many varieties of Southern Magnolia, Needle Palms, Loblolly and Longleaf Pines, Crape Myrtles, Aucuba japonica, Camellia, trunking Yucca, hardy bananas, Monkey Puzzle, copious types of evergreen Hollies, many East Asian (non-holly) broadleaf evergreen trees and shrubs, and certain varieties of figs may be grown in private and public gardens. For New England standards, growing season is quite long in New London. Like much of coastal Connecticut and Long Island, NY, it averages over 190 days in recent history.
New London lies at the cusp of USDA hardiness zones 6 and 7 (6b and 7a), with the southern quarter or so of land area in the city being in zone 7 according to the latest released hardiness zone map, making it similar in expected extreme minimum annual temperature to places like Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Trenton, New Jersey, the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, much of north-central Tennessee and the Ozarks of northern Arkansas. By the mid-to-late 21st century, the area is expected to fall within USDA zone 8 according to some models.
Due to climate change, certain low-lying areas such as Ocean Beach in the southern part of the city are susceptible to rising sea levels and increasingly powerful fall/winter noreasters and summer/fall hurricanes.
|Climate data for Groton–New London Airport (GON) (1981–2010), snow data from Norwich, Connecticut (1981–2010).|
|Record high °F (°C)||65
|Average high °F (°C)||37.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||29.5
|Average low °F (°C)||21.6
|Record low °F (°C)||−14
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.27
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||8.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.05)||6||5||6||7||8||8||6||6||6||7||7||7||79|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.05)||3||3||2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||10|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
Recent estimates on demographics and economic status
According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, non-Hispanic whites made up 54.6% of New London's population. Non-Hispanic blacks made up 14.0% of the population. Asians of non-Hispanic origin made up 4.6% of the city's population. Multiracial individuals of non-Hispanic origin made up 4.3% of the population; people of mixed black and white ancestry made up 1.7% of the population. In addition, people of mixed black and Native American ancestry made up 1.0% of the population. People of mixed white and Native American ancestry made up 0.7% of the population; those of mixed white and Asian ancestry made up 0.4% of the populace. Hispanics and Latinos made up 21.9% of the population, of which 13.8% were Puerto Rican.
According to the survey, 74.4% of people over the age of 5 spoke only English at home. Approximately 16.0% of the population spoke Spanish at home.
In 2012, the population reached 27,700. The median household income was $44,100, with 20% of the population below the poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 25,671 people, 10,181 households, and 5,385 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,635.5 per square mile (1,789.8/km2). There were 11,560 housing units at an average density of 2,087.4 per square mile (805.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 63.5% White, 19.7% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 18.6% African American, 0.9% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.1% from other races, and 5.7% from two or more races.
There were 10,181 households, out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.4% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 22.8% under the age of 18, 17.6% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $33,809, and the median income for a family was $38,942. Males had a median income of $31,405 versus $25,426 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,437. About 13.4% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over.
Arts and culture
The family of Nobel laureate and Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Eugene O'Neill (1888–1953) were intimately connected to New London. He lived here for years and wrote several plays in the city. A major O'Neill archive is located at Connecticut College, and the family home "Monte Cristo Cottage" in New London is a museum and registered national historic landmark operated by the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center. Dutch's Tavern on Green Street was a favorite watering hole of Eugene O'Neill and still stands today.
Notable artists and ensembles include:
- Eastern Connecticut Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1946 and led by Toshiyuki Shimada, who is also conductor of the Yale Symphony Orchestra in New Haven.
- The Idlers of the United States Coast Guard Academy, an all-male vocal group specializing in sea shanties and patriotic music.
- United States Coast Guard Band, founded in 1925 with the assistance of John Philip Sousa. Stationed at the United States Coast Guard Academy and attracting talented musicians from all parts of the country, the band is the official musical representative of the nation's oldest continuous seagoing service.
- The Can Kickers, a folk punk band.
Sites of interest
- Lyman Allyn Art Museum
- Ocean Beach Park
- New London County Historical Society, Shaw-Perkins Mansion (1758)
- New London Maritime Society, U.S. Custom House (1833), landing site of Amistad (1839)
- Fishers Island (7 miles off the coast of New London, but part of New York)
- Connecticut College Arboretum
- Fort Griswold (Groton)
- Fort Trumbull
- United States Coast Guard Academy
- Coast Guard Station New London
- Flock Theatre
- Garde Arts Center
- Hygienic Arts Gallery
- Joshua Hempsted House (1678)
- Monte Cristo Cottage & Eugene O'Neill Theater Center (Waterford)
- USS Nautilus (Groton)
- Ye Antientist Burial Ground
- Winthrop Mill (1650)
- Former Second Congregational Church (1870)
In 2010, New London changed their form of government from council-manager to strong mayor-council after a charter revision. Distinct town and city government structures formerly existed and technically continue; however, they now govern exactly the same territory and have elections on the same ballot on Election Day in November.
Fort Trumbull controversy
The neighborhood of Fort Trumbull once consisted of nearly two-dozen homes, but they were seized by the City of New London using eminent domain. This measure was supported in the 2005 5-4 Supreme Court ruling of Kelo v. City of New London, and the homes were ultimately demolished by the city as part of an economic development plan. The site was slated to be redeveloped under this plan, but the chosen developer was not able to get financing and the project failed. The empty landscape of the Fort Trumbull area has been characterized by some as an example of government overreach and inefficiency.
Jordan v. New London
In May 1997, Robert Jordan filed a lawsuit against the city, alleging violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the United States and Connecticut constitutions in a case that was referred to as "Too Smart To Be A Cop". In the fall of 1996, the City Manager told Jordan that he was ineligible to be a police officer in New London because he scored too high on the written portion of the Wonderlic test intended to evaluate cognitive ability.
New London had decided to consider only applicants who scored between 20 and 27 on the written examination. Jordan scored a 33 on the exam, the equivalent of having an IQ of 125. He filed suit in the District Court, where his case was dismissed by Judge Peter C. Dorsey, who noted: "The guarantee of equal protection under the Fifth Amendment is not a source of substantive rights or liberties, but rather a right to be free from invidious discrimination in statutory classifications and other governmental activity. It is well settled that, where a statutory classification does not itself impinge on a right or liberty protected by the Constitution, the validity of the classification must be sustained unless the classification rests on grounds wholly irrelevant to the achievement of [any legitimate government] objective…. [Jordan] may have been disqualified unwisely but he was not denied equal protection." The dismissal was upheld on appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Downtown New London is served by regional Southeast Area Transit buses, the Estuary Transit District public transit service between the New London transportation center and Old Saybrook, and interstate Greyhound Lines buses. Interstate 95 passes through the New London.
New London has frequent passenger rail service. New London Union Station is served by Amtrak's Northeast Regional and Acela Express regional rail services, plus Shore Line East (SLE) commuter rail service. The Providence & Worcester Railroad and the New England Central Railroad handle freight.
The Groton-New London Airport, a general aviation facility, is located in Groton. Scheduled commercial flights are available at T. F. Green and the much smaller Tweed New Haven Regional Airport. The larger Bradley International Airport is 75 minutes driving time.
Mayors of New London
- Richard Law (1784–1806)
- Jeremiah G. Brainerd (1806–1829)
- Elias Perkins (1829–1832)
- Coddington Billings (1832–1835)
- Noyes Billings (1835–1837)
- Jirah Isham (1837–1838)
- Francis Allyn (1838–1841)
- George C. Wilson (1841–July 20, 1841) death
- Caleb J. Allen (August 1841–1843)
- Andrew M. Frink (1843–1845)
- John Perkins Cushing Mather (1845–1850)
- Andrew C. Lippet (1850–1853)
- Henry P. Haven (1853–1856)
- Jonathan N. Harris (1856–1862)
- Hiram Willey (1862–1865)
- Fredrick L. Allen (1865–1871)
- Augustus Brandegee (1871–1873)
- Thomas M. Waller (1873–1879)
- Robert Coit (1879–1882)
- George E. Start (1882–1885)
- C. A. Williams (1885–1888)
- George F. Tinker (1888–1891)
- George Williams (1891) (resigned after two weeks)
- Ralph Wheeler (1891–1893)
- A. J. Bentley (1893–1894)
- James P. Johnston (1894–1897)
- Cyrus G. Beckwith (1897–1900)
- M. Wilson Dart (1900–1903)
- Bryan F. Mahan (1903–1906)
- Alton T. Miner (1905) acting mayor for five months in 1905
- Benjamin L. Armstrong (1906–1909)
- Bryan F. Mahan (1909–1915)
- Ernest E. Rogers (1915–1918)
- E. Frank Morgan (1918–1921)
- Lucius E. Whiton
- William C. Fox
- James A. May
- Malcolm M. Scott
- Cornelius D. Twomey
- E. Frank Morgan
- James A. May
- Malcolm M. Scott
- Alton T. Miner
- Cornelius D. Twomey
- Leo B. Reagan
- Lewis B. Doane
- Richard R. Morgan
- Samuel J. Selleck
- Fred Benvenuti
- Thomas J. Griffin
- Richard G. Duggan
- Thomas G. Martin
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
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- Theresa Andrews (born 1962), winner of two Olympic gold medals
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- James Avery (1620–1700), politician and military commander
- Nathan Belcher (1813–1891), congressman
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- Frances Manwaring Caulkins (1795–1869), historian, genealogist, author
- Thomas Humphrey Cushing (1755–1822), brigadier general in the War of 1812 and collector of customs
- Harry Daghlian (1921–1945), physicist at Los Alamos National Lab, first person to die as a result of a criticality accident
- AJ Dillon (born 1998), American football running back
- David Dorfman (born 1955), choreographer
- Richard Douglass (1746–1828), cooper and soldier
- Grace L. Drake, Ohio state legislator
- Doug DuBose (born 1964), NFL player
- Kris Dunn (born 1994), point guard for the Chicago Bulls
- Larry Elgart (born 1922), musician
- John Ellis (born 1948), baseball player
- Elsie Ferguson (1883–1961), stage and film actress
- Richard P. Freeman (1869–1944), congressman
- L. Patrick Gray (1916–2005), lawyer and Watergate figure
- Nathan Hale (1755–1776), schoolmaster and patriot
- Doc Hammer (born 1967), multimedium artist and co-creator of the Venture Brothers
- Matt Harvey (born 1989), MLB pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds
- Glenne Headly (1955–2017), actress
- Barkley L. Hendricks (born 1945), painter
- Linda Jaivin (born 1955), Australian author
- Sarah Kemble Knight (1666–1727), diarist, teacher and businesswoman
- Madeline Kripke (1943–2020), book collector
- John Law (1796–1873), congressman
- Bryan F. Mahan (1856–1923), congressman
- Richard Mansfield (1857–1907), actor
- John McCain (1936–2018), senator and Republican presidential nominee (lived in New London as a child when his father, John S. McCain, Jr., worked at the naval submarine base)
- Thomas Minor (1608–1690), founder and early New England diarist
- Casey Neistat (born 1981), filmmaker
- James R Newby ( born 1844) was a Civil War veteran who served in the first regiment of volunteer African Americans in the United States and a 19th-century African-American missionary to present-day Nigeria, Cameroon, and Liberia.
- James O'Neill (1847–1920), actor, father of Eugene O'Neill
- Eugene O'Neill (1888–1953), playwright
- Walter Palmer (1585–1661), founder
- Elias Perkins (1767–1845), congressman
- Mary Philips (1901–1975), actress
- Edward Clark Potter (1857–1923), sculptor
- Ellen Culver Potter (1871–1958), physician, public health official
- Renee Prahar (1879–1962), sculptor
- Art Quimby (1933–2010), basketball player
- Jordan Reed (born 1990), tight end for the Washington Redskins
- Tim Riordan (born 1960), gridiron football player
- Dawn Robinson (born 1965), singer
- Dudley Saltonstall (1738–1796), naval officer
- "Magic Dick" Salwitz (born 1945), musician
- Thomas R. Sargent III (1914–2010), Vice Admiral in the United States Coast Guard
- Samuel Seabury (1729–1796), bishop
- Benjamin Stark (1820–1898), senator
- Sigmund Strochlitz (1916–2006), activist and Holocaust survivor
- Dana Suesse (1909–1987), composer, songwriter, musician
- Ron Suresha, author and editor
- Flora M. Vare, (1874–1962), Pennsylvania State Senator from 1925 to 1928
- Cassie Ventura (born 1986), singer
- John T. Wait (1811–1899), former U.S. Representative for Connecticut
- Thomas M. Waller (1839–1924), Mayor of New London and 51st Governor of Connecticut
- Mary Way (1769–1833), portrait miniaturist
- John Winthrop the Younger (1606–1676), statesman and founder
- Tyson Wheeler (born 1975), former Denver Nuggets basketball player
- Abisha Woodward (1752–1809), early American lighthouse builder
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- McHardie, Allan, Elizabeth, Andrew (1885). The Prodigal Continent and her Prodigal Son. London: Morgan & Scott.
- "Wait, John Turner". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Keefe, Gavin (March 20, 2015). "Wheeler on Dunn: New London basketball legend talks about legend-to-be". The New London Day. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
- Griswold, Wick (2012). A History of the Connecticut River. The History Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-1609494056. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- The Greeneville Daily Sun (May 31, 1919). "Race Riot at New London Naval Base". The Greeneville Daily Sun. Greeneville, Tennessee: W.R. Lyon. pp. 1–4. ISSN 2475-0174. OCLC 37307396. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Rucker, Walter C.; Upton, James N. (2007). Encyclopedia of American Race Riots, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313333026. - Total pages: 930
- Voogd, Jan (2008). Race Riots and Resistance: The Red Summer of 1919. Peter Lang. ISBN 9781433100673. - Total pages: 234
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